NOTE: All the layout and chart diagrams are linked to
the image file so that this page can be loaded in quicker.
The adder design used in this project consists of two XOR2
gates and three NAND2 gates. The symbolic diagram of the
full adder is as follows:
Figure 1: Full Adder in symbolic form
This schematic is based on the full adder derived from the
ECE290 text book. Looking deeper into the design -- on the
transistor level -- its layout is pretty much straight forward.
The XOR2 gate design is based on a 8 transistor design that
was derived from the ECE325 manual. It is known as the
double rail transistor. The XOR2 layout is on Figure 2
and the timing diagram is on Figure 3.
It can be seen on the timing diagrams, the XOR2 design
works as it is suppose to.
(XOR2 Spice File printout)
The NAND2 gate design was straight from the ECE382 text book.
This device also works as it is suppose to. The layout of
the NAND2 device is on Figure 4 and the timing diagram on
(NAND2 Spice File printout)
Before diving into the full 8-bit adder, the task was divided
up into smaller managable pieces. A half-adder was constructed
to see if the device would yield proper results.
This half-adder layout consisted of one XOR2 gate and one NAND2
gate (Figure 6). The timing diagram for this device has yield
favorable results (timing diagram -- Figure 7).
So a full-adder is the next logical step. But before continuing,
the layout was redone to compressed the footprint size requirements.
It was retested (simulated) and passed.
(Half Adder Spice File printout)
The full-adder was putting all the pieces together. The layout
is on Figure 8 where it looks like just putting two half-adders
together, but an additional NAND2 gate was placed at the end of
the circuit to complete the carry solution. The device was
tested (twice - once without CIN and once with CIN) and passed
with flying colors --
Figure 9 and
(Full Adder Spice File with out CIN printout)
(Full Adder Spice File with CIN printout)
Now, technically the 8-bit adder device should work by just
coping and pasting the full-adder seven more times. With a
few minor layout adjustments this was completed and tested
with the required test cases. The full layout of the 8-bit
adder is on Figure 11 and the test cases follows
Figure 13a and
The tested carried out were to see the complete switching states
of the SUM and CARRY bits. These information will be used later
for power consumption analysis.
(8-Bit Adder Spice File running @ 5 V printout)
(8-Bit Adder Spice File running @ 3.3 V printout)
Since I was on my own on this project, I decided that the
parallel adder was the best design for completing this
assignment. The only thing that I needed was a well plan
of action in developing this adder to produce the results
quickly and correct. I choose the simple design of two
XOR2 and three NAND2 gates because it seemed to be the
tried and true tested design. I have tried implementing
the designs shown in the back of the book (PG producers,
Manchester devices and the tapered latch circuit) but
they did not operate properly in Spice. And since I was
the only person working on this and have already spent
too much time trying to figure out why one design did not
worked better than another, I just went right back to
the basics. And what do you know! It works.
The critical path in my design is the very last sumout
bit (SUM7 or if you really want to get technical it is
the carryout bit of the last stage -- COUT7 -- but that
isn't used for anything useful in this project).
This was outlined on the 8-bit adder diagram (Figure 11).
The solution of the very first carryout has to traverse
through all of the CIN lines (see Figure 1) over and over
again until it hits the most significant bit.
Once it makes it to the most significant bit spot, the
time it takes for the adder to solve for a problem can
now be measured. This is determined by seeing when SUM7
stabilizes (to within 10% of the final solution). And
from Figure 12b, SUM7 reaches the final solution at about
10ns when the voltage (Vdd) is 5 Vdc. But at 3.3 Vdc,
SUM7 stabilizes at just under 20ns (Figure 13b).
Using the power meter design that SPICE can plot out,
power dissipation can now be determined. (And I can't
seem to get this part of the project to work properly
TABLE of RESULTS
< 20 ns
This was an interesting project. I have learned how
integrated circuit chips are designed from the ground up
and giving me (the user/designer) the experience of
seeing how tough it can be designing them.
This project also showed that there are many different
ways to design a solution. I wished there were more
people in my group. But the one I was originally
teamed up with did not do anything until it was too late.